Glaucoma Treatment Center Gurgaon
What is glaucoma? Glaucoma is a group of diseases that cause thinning and damage to the eye’s optic nerve, due to increased pressure inside the eye and can result in vision loss and blindness. The normal eye pressure is below 22 mm of Hg.
What is optic nerve? The optic nerve is the nerve connecting the eye to the brain. It transmits the images seen by your eye to the brain, and helps the brain to interpret the images.
Glaucoma can be treated with medicine (eye drops, pills), glaucoma laser surgery, traditional glaucoma incisional surgery or a combination of these methods. Glaucoma treatments are designed to decrease elevated intraocular (inside the eye) pressure (IOP), which can damage the optic nerve that transmits visual information to the brain. Our goal is to prevent vision loss from glaucoma, which is irreversible.
Medical Treatment for Glaucoma
- Ophthalmic Eye Drops for Glaucoma Treatment
- Oral Medications (Pills) for Glaucoma Treatment
- Laser Treatment for Glaucoma
- Micropulse Laser Treatments for Glaucoma
Laser Iridotomy for Glaucoma
- Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty for Glaucoma
- Diode Cyclophotocoagulation (CPC)
Surgical Treatment for Glaucoma
- Incisional Glaucoma Surgery
- Glaucoma Drainage Implant Surgery
- Glaucoma Filtration Surgery (Trabeculectomy)
- Canaloplasty Glaucoma Surgery
- Minimally-invasive Glaucoma Surgery
- Cataract Surgery and Glaucoma
- Endocyclophotocoagulation (ECP)
What are the symptoms of glaucoma? Most types of glaucoma do not cause any symptoms in the early stages. They cause reduced vision in the very advanced stages of the disease, when >70% of the nerve fibers are already damaged. Occasionally, pain (in head and eye), redness, watering, decreased vision can be noticed.
What are the special investigations performed to diagnose glaucoma?
Tonometry – This test is performed to measure the pressure inside the eye, using an instrument called the tonometer. Various tonometers are available, the gold standard is the contact method using Goldmann’s applanation tonometry.
Gonioscopy – This test is performed to check the drainage angle of the eye, to diagnose different types of glaucoma.
Visual field analysis – To analyze the extent of damage of the optic nerve. This test maps the peripheral vision, which is affected in glaucoma.
Optical coherence tomography (OCT)– This test is performed to measure the thickness of the optic nerve (retinal nerve fiber). Optic nerve thinning is present in glaucoma and OCT can diagnose early optic nerve damage even before changes appear in the visual fields.
Corneal pachymetry– To measure the thickness of the cornea (i.e., the transparent front part of the eye), as this can affect the measurement of intraocular pressure. Thicker cornea can give a falsely high IOP reading and thinner cornea can give a falsely low IOP reading. At AEDI, we offer many diagnostic tools to measure the corneal thickness like the Alcon Ocuscan, Pentacam and anterior segment optical coherence tomography.
- Medicines, in the form of eyedrops or pills, are the most common early treatment for glaucoma.
- In angle closure glaucoma, a laser procedure is performed, called YAG laser peripheral iridotomy to create a small hole in the brown part of the eye to increase space for drainage of eye fluid.
- Patients whose eye pressure is not controlled with medicines or those with advanced optic nerve damage will need to undergo a surgery called “trabeculectomy” to increase fluid drainage and maintain the eye pressure at a normal level.
- If the trabeculectomy surgery fails to control the eye pressure, other procedures like “glaucoma drainage device implantation”, “cyclocryotherapy”; may need to be performed.
What happens if glaucoma is not treated? Without treatment, people with glaucoma will slowly lose their peripheral (side) vision. As glaucoma remains untreated, people may miss objects to the side and out of the corner of their eye. They seem to be looking through a tunnel. Over time, straight-ahead (central) vision may decrease until no vision remains.
What can you do?
- If you are being treated for glaucoma, be sure to take your glaucoma medicine every day.
- See your eye care professional regularly.
- Get your family members screened for glaucoma, as this disease can run in families
- Even if you, or no one else in your family has glaucoma, get annual eye check ups after the age of 40 years, as glaucoma incidence increases after this age, and can only diagnosed by an eye care physician.